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   2012| April-June  | Volume 1 | Issue 2  
    Online since October 13, 2020

 
 
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ORIGINAL ARTICLES
A study of coracoclavicular joint in South Indian population
Umapathy Sembian, M Muhil, SD Nalina Kumari
April-June 2012, 1(2):81-85
Background: Movements taking place in the shoulder girdle is a result of complex coordinated movements between the glenohumeral, acromio clavicular, sternoclavicular and scapulothoracic articulations. Clavicle is connected with the first rib by the costoclavicular ligament apart from the sternum and scapula through sternoclavicular and coracoclavicular ligaments. Sometimes the area of attachment of these ligaments on the clavicle, first rib and scapula show faceted apophysis suggesting the presence of additional diarthrodial articulation. The incidence of Coraco- Clavicular (CCJ) joint in various populations is estimated to be ranging from 0.8% - 9.8%. Aim: The aim of our present study is to ascertain the prevalence of Coraco- Clavicular joint (CCJ) in South Indian population. Materials and methods: The present study was carried out on fifty cadavers embalmed with 10% formalin. Meticulous care was taken to include only cadavers from South Indian population. Cadavers exhibiting obscuring pathologies were excluded from the study. The dissections were carried out in all the limbs to note the presence of a diarthrotic coracoclavicular joint which is represented by the presence of an articular facet on the conoid tubercle of the clavicle & the superior surface of the coracoid process of the scapula. Results: In our study we came across a single cadaver having the coracoclavicular joint on the left side unilaterally. Conclusion: The coracoclavicular joint though a rare entity should be borne in mind as a differential diagnosis for thoracic outlet syndrome or costoclavicular syndrome and in general for shoulder pain. The present study has revealed the presence of CCJ in our population and it constitutes to only 2%.
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Physical growth during adolescence in mentally retarded children
Sukhinder Baidwan, Molly M Paul, Jugesh Chhatwal, RS Deswal
April-June 2012, 1(2):61-66
Background and aims: Growth in children with mental retardation differs from that of normal children, but majority of studies have been performed in western countries and have focused on the early years of life. The purpose of this study therefore was to evaluate the growth pattern of male mentally retarded adolescents from North India and compare it with that of normal male children. Materials and methods: Two hundred institutionalized intellectually disabled (I.Q. less than 70) and two hundred normal male children between 1020 years of age from North India were selected and the physical growth parameters i.e. height and weight were measured and Body Mass Index (BMI) was calculated in all subjects. The mentally retarded and normal groups of boys were categorized separately on the basis of their age into one-year age groups. The data was then compared between the two groups using 2 sample’t’ test. Results: The results indicated that the mean height and weight of mentally retarded boys during adolescence was significantly retarded as compared to normal subjects. However, the intellectually disabled and the normal group do not show any significant difference in their body fat during adolescence. The mean height and weight gain of mentally retarded children during adolescence (11-20 years) however did not vary from that of normal children. Conclusions: Thus, the physical growth retardation in children with intellectual disabilities occurs during early childhood i.e. before 11 years of age.
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A gross morphological study of the pancreas in human cadavers
S Sulochana, T Sivakami
April-June 2012, 1(2):55-60
Background and aims: Normal variants and congenital anomalies of the pancreas and pancreatic duct are often detected as incidental findings. The current interest in the gross anatomy and the blood supply of the pancreas is based on recent developments in pancreatic surgery, particularly in limited resection of pancreas. The purpose of this study is to review the gross morphology of the pancreas, in South Indians, regarding the dimension and shape of the pancreas, the termination of main pancreatic duct and vascular pattern of head of the pancreas. Materials and methods: One hundred specimens of pancreas, procured from cadavers and autopsy cases from Thanjavur Medical College, Thanjavur, were carefully studied, and the data obtained were compared with similar reports available in the literature. Results: The mean length of the pancreas was found to be 16.38±2.38cm and the mean width of the head, neck, body and tail of pancreas were 5±0.78cm, 3±0.46cm, 3.7±0.56cm and 2.7±0.34cm respectively. Three different shapes of pancreas were found: oblique, inverted ‘V’ and sigmoid. Double anterior pancreatico duodenal arterial arcade was observed in 2% of specimens. Conclusion: Knowledge of normal anatomy of the pancreas and vascular pattern is essential for understanding the segmental resection of pancreas and in pancreas-sparing duodenectomy.
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Anatomy in the new era : perception of a cross section of anatomists
Hirak Das, Geeta Das, Giriraj Kusre, Mahendra Kumar Pant, Varun Malhotra, Santanu Kumar Sarma
April-June 2012, 1(2):67-75
Background and aims: Anatomy is one of the founding pillars of Medical Science. However, it has a poor preference as a career choice among the medical graduates. This can be attributed to the traditional concept in the minds of the people that it is a subject concerned mainly with cadaver dissection and teaching. This study is therefore aimed at understanding the general perception of anatomists about their subject and analyzing their suggestions for bringing about a positive change in attitude towards the subject. Materials and methods: A cross sectional study was conducted through a questionnaire that was completed by Anatomy faculty and postgraduate students from different parts of India. The study tried to understand the perspective of anatomists towards their subject and give some suggestions to bring about a change. Results: It was seen that Anatomy was the favorite basic science subject among most anatomists. Yet, most of them did not readily take it up as a career option. Participants also came up with various suggestions like the need to introduce superspeciality courses, more clinical application, systematization of research, promotion of fundings and the need to make Anatomy a part of Government’s health education programmes. Conclusion: Anatomists across the country are wishing to have a more active role in the fast changing world. For this, anatomists need to come out of the traditional ways.
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A study of nutrient foramina in dry adult humeri of South Indian subjects
Manjunath S Halagatti, Pramod Rangasubhe
April-June 2012, 1(2):76-80
Background: Vascular insults to the humerus either during fracture dislocation or during surgical correction of fracture may result in delayed healing or non-union of fracture. It is worth to find the number and size of nutrient foramina. The knowledge regarding the nutrient foramina helps to protect them during conservative operative procedures of the bone, thus to concentrate upon the viability of the fractured fragments. Objectives: To observe the location of nutrient foramina with reference to the different segments of shaft of humerus, to note variations in number, direction and size of the nutrient foramina. Further to examine if a correlation exists between the length of humerus and number of vascular foramina and nutrient foramina. Materials and methods: The study was undertaken on 200 dry normal adult humerus bones. Observations were made using Hepburn’s osteometric board and hypodermic needles of different gauges. Statistical methods (SPSS) were used to analyze these observations. Results: The location of nutrient foramen was more in the middle l/3rd of antero- medial surface. Majority of humeri showed one nutrient foramen, whereas there were 2 to 3 foramina in few humeri. Conclusion: This study will help in planning the surgical treatment of fracture of humerus which will possibly reduce the post-operative complications.
  76 3 -
Importance of microstructure of lumbar pedicle in screw placement
Kunal Chawla, Mahesh Sharma, Avinash Abhaya, Ratesh Kumar, Jyotsna Singh
April-June 2012, 1(2):86-90
Background and objective: Any structural deviation of the pedicle may result in interference of the weight transmission mechanism and compression of neural structures. The aim of this study was to qualitatively investigate osteonal structures within the cortical bone and thickness of medial and lateral walls of lumbar pedicle. Materials and methods: Specimens consisted of L3 vertebrae from 20 adult cadavers (14 males and 6 females) belonging to North West Indian population. The pedicles of each specimen were cut off at the pedicle-vertebral body junction and processed for paraffin sections after decalcification. 8-10 |i thick transverse sections were cut with rotary microtome at middle of the pedicle. The sections were stained with hematoxylin and eosin. Results: The mean cortical thickness on superior, inferior, medial and lateral was 1.3, 1.6, 0.8 and 0.6 mm respectively in males and 1.1, 1.3, 0.9 and 0.6 mm respectively in females. Cortical thickness was more on medial side compared to lateral side of the pedicle. The cortex of the inferior side of the pedicle was the thickest of all margins. The core of pedicle was filled up with irregularly placed bony trabaculae and marrow spaces. Conclusions: The section of pedicle resembled a shell with an outer cortex surrounding inner cancellous bone. The thickness of the cortical bone of pedicle was not homogeneous, being thicker on medial side compared to lateral side and cortical bone of the inferior side was thickest of all margins.
  71 3 -
CASE REPORTS
Spinabifida of atlas
K Padmalatha, BS Prakash, N Balachandra, Y Mamatha
April-June 2012, 1(2):99-101
During the routine osteology demonstration for the first year MBBS students, the authors came across the presence of incomplete posterior arch in one of the atlas. Congenital clefts and other developmental anomalies of the atlas are rarely encountered. They are incidental findings discovered while investigating the cervical spine following trauma. Differentiation of developmental variants of the atlas from the Burst fracture of Jefferson is essential to prevent unnecessary medical intervention. Posterior midline cleft of atlas/ rachischisis/spinabifida occulta are well recognized and attributed to the defect /absent development of cartilaginous preformation of the arch and not to the disturbance of the ossification.
  67 4 -
A communicating artery between axillary and radial artery - a case report
N Komala, N Aruna
April-June 2012, 1(2):102-105
Variations in the branching pattern of axillary artery have been observed quite frequently. In a male cadaver aged around 45 years allotted for undergraduate dissection a communicating artery between axillary and radial artery was found on the right side during routine dissection. Such arterial variations are important for clinicians in angiographic examinations, removes ambiguity during diagnostic interventions and surgical procedures. Thereby it ensures competency and reduces complications in cardiac catheterization, pedicle flaps, arterial grafting etc.
  66 3 -
Bilateral communication between musculocutaneous nerve and median nerve - a case report
V Dhanalakshmi, B Santhi, K Suba Ananthi
April-June 2012, 1(2):96-98
During routine dissection of an adult male cadaver, we observed bilateral communication between musculocutaneous nerve and median nerve. The level of origin of the communicating branch from musculocutaneous nerve was different in both arms. In left arm it arose before piercing coracobrachialis and in the right arm after piercing it. It is important to be aware of this variation while planning a surgery in the region of arm, as these nerves are more liable to be injured during operations. Any compression over the communicating branch may give rise to varying patterns of weakness that may impose difficulty in diagnosis for the neurologists.
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