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ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2020  |  Volume : 9  |  Issue : 3  |  Page : 90-96

Study of effect of smoking on cytomorphometry of buccal mucosal cells among smokers in South Gujarat Region


1 Tutor, Department of Anatomy, Surat Municipal Institute of Medical Education and Research, Surat, Gujarat, India
2 Professor and Head of Department, Department of Anatomy, Surat Municipal Institute of Medical Education and Research, Surat, Gujarat, India

Correspondence Address:
Neeraj Master
Department of Anatomy, Surat Municipal Institute of Medical Education and Research Centre, Surat, Gujarat
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/NJCA.NJCA_33_20

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Background: Tobacco consumption is the major cause of oral cancer. Early detection of cytomorphometrical changes in the buccal mucosa of smoker by the use of exfoliative cytology could help in picking early premalignant changes and thereby reduce morbidity in oral cancer patients. Aim: To assess and compare the cytomorphometrical changes in the buccal mucosa cells among smoker and nonsmoker group and assess these findings in smokers with a duration of exposure to smoking by dividing them as per pack year groups. Materials and Methods: This study was carried out on 51 male cases (Cigarette or Bidi smoking) and 51 controls as per the inclusion and exclusion criteria. For finding the effect of smoking exposure severity, smokers were divided into three groups based on pack year like Group 1 with pack year <5, Group 2 with pack year 5–10, and Group 3 with pack year >10. Sample was taken from the buccal mucosa and stained with Papnicoalaou stain. Images were analyzed by Image J software and nuclear area (NA), cytoplasmic area, and nuclear/cellular ratio (N/C ratio) data collected and analyzed. Results: There was a significant difference for the mean values of NA and N/C ratio in the buccal mucosa of smokers. Significantly increased NA and N/C ratio were found with increased pack year. Conclusion: Cytomorphometrical findings such as NA and N/C ratio are observed in increased severity in premalignant conditions such as leukoplakia. Hence, it is possible to pick up these findings earlier by noninvasive method such as exfoliative cytology, and it can be used as an adjunct tool for mass screening.


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