• Users Online: 56
  • Print this page
  • Email this page
  • Email this page
  • Facebook
  • Twitter
Year : 2018  |  Volume : 7  |  Issue : 3  |  Page : 139-145

A cadaveric study of anatomical variations of testicular veins

1 Assistant Professor, Dept. of Anatomy, Government Medical College, Manjeri, Kerala, India
2 Assistant Professor, Dept. of Anatomy, Rajah Muthiah Medical College and Hospital, Annamalai University, Chidambaram, India

Correspondence Address:
Anly Antony
Dept of Anatomy, Govt. Medical College, Manjeri, Kerala
Login to access the Email id

Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

Rights and PermissionsRights and Permissions

Background: Infertility is considered a major public health issue. A multicentric WHO study showed increased frequency of varicocele in infertile couples to vary geographically from 6% to 47%. Some theorize, varicocele results due to anatomical differences between the right and left testicular veins. This disparity is believed, leads to increase in hydrostatic pressure of the left testicular vein, which is subsequently transferred to the venous plexus, causing dilation. Hence knowledge of testicular venous pattern and its variations takes paramount importance. Aims: To study anatomy of testicular veins with focus on: a] normal and occurrence of varying number and patterns of testicular veins b] to find explanations for incidence of some anomalies c] to consider surgical significance of such variations and d] to compare the results of the present study with previous studies. Materials and methods: The study material comprised of 25 embalmed, adult human male cadavers of south Indian origin. Systematic dissection was carried out following the guidelines of Cunningham” s Manual of Practical Anatomy. Results: On five sides, four testicular veins were found at the deep inguinal ring. On the left side, all testicular veins terminated in the left renal vein with some showing duplication. Variations in the terminations of testicular veins were seen in three of the right sides, which included termination in the right renal vein, junction of the inferior vena cava with the right renal vein and in one case following duplication, veins terminated on the anterior and lateral wall of the inferior vena cava. Conclusion: Termination of testicular veins followed standard text book pattern on the left side, however a slight increase in the duplication of veins was observed on this side. On the right side, testicular veins showed variations in the site of termination and also duplication. Knowledge of these findings can be of importance in clinical practice related to the problems of the testis.

Print this article     Email this article
 Next article
 Previous article
 Table of Contents

 Similar in PUBMED
   Search Pubmed for
   Search in Google Scholar for
 Related articles
 Citation Manager
 Access Statistics
 Reader Comments
 Email Alert *
 Add to My List *
 * Requires registration (Free)

 Article Access Statistics
    PDF Downloaded7    
    Comments [Add]    

Recommend this journal